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4.3 The rest

4.3.1 Inserted o

To make the pronunciation easier, it is possible to insert a vowel o between two roots in a composite: puŝoŝipo – tugboat, skribotablo – writing desk. With some words the letter o is inserted to make them more recognizable, because of the tradition or because the words have ends with an o in international usage: diosimilalike a god, radioelsendiradiobroadcast.
The letter o cannot be inserted in front of suffixes or after prefixes.
In PAG[33], this problem is described differently – as conserving of endings. The conserving of endings has the same reason as inserting of an o. However, in this case the o between two roots is not an inserted vowel but an nominal ending of the first root. Another consequence is, that also adjectival ending a and adverbial e can be found between two roots. The type of the ending is driven by so called vortefiko rules (vortefiko – effect of the word)[34].
This theory seams reasonable to me. Except the problems with vortefiko rules, I do not know if the theory could be confronted with real data. This problem would require further study, especially of a large corpus. Provisionally, I look at the o as an inserted character.

4.3.2 Hyphen

According to PAG[35], hyphen (dividstreko) in composites is used in following cases:
  1. In composites with three or more roots (not counting affixes) to show theoretical bracketing of the main and determining elements: vapoŝip-asocio – steamboat association in contrast to vapor-ŝipasocio – steamy boat-association
  2. In composites with two roots, to make them more easily to recognize: sen-tema – without any theme; especially when the second root starts with a vowel: bel-aspekta – looking pretty. The hyphen is not used before suffixes (incl. suffixoids) and after prefixes (incl. prefixoids). However, it is recommended to use it, if the affixoid is used as classical root: il-riparo – reparation of the tool (ilo – a tool, a suffixoid).
  3. It is recommended to use it in coordinative composites (see 4.1.2): membro-abonanto – member-subscriber; and it is necessary to use it if the elements are inflected: esperantistoj-amikoj – Esperantists-friends.
For other uses of a hyphen, see also chapters Declination of proper names and 4.3.5 Abbreviations

4.3.3 Sciences

Names of sciences are full of pseudosuffixes[36], however some of the sciences can be regarded as composites.
The most often suffix is io (unofficial), that makes the name of the science from the scientist. The scientist ends very often with ologo – partly pseudosuffix (astrologo, ekologo), partly unofficial suffix (antrop|ologo, soci|ologo).
Words for sciences sometimes contain pseudosuffix iko (poetiko – poetics, stylistko – stylistics). Ik can be regarded in some cases as suffix forming the name for the science from the scientist (stylisto – stylist). However these cases are very rare and the rest before the iko is very often not a scientist (simbolo – symbol, simboliko – symbolism) or the result is not a science (gimnasto – gymnast, gimnastiko – gymnastics).

4.3.4 Names of countries

The problem of the names of countries and nationalities has been often discussed. There are two ways – to form the name of the inhabitant from its country or vice versa. The current state of the names of countries is evolved tradition, international influences and tendency to use some simple system.
Originally, an inhabitant was primary for the Old Word and a country for the New World; with some exceptions. The inhabitant was formed by the suffix ano and the country by suffix ujo. Names of some were derived from a town or a river by the suffix io(Meksiko – Ciudad de Mexico Meksikio – Mexico).
However, there was a tendency to make the names more international. Some names were using the word lando (Finnlando), the suffixio was used more and more instead of the suffix ujo and a new suffix istan was used for some countries.
Today, there is a list of standard names of countries (Listo de normaj landnomoj)[37]. This list put all countries into two categories and some subcategories:
1) Country is primary, inhabitant is formed by suffix ano.
Peruo Peru|ano, Aŭstralio Aŭstrali|ano, Nepalo Nepal|ano
2) Inhabitant is primary, country is formed by various suffixes:
a) by the suffixes io or ujo.
Hungaro Hungario/Hungarujo, Turko Turkio/Turkujo
b) by the root lando.
Finno Finnlando, Skoto Skotlando
c) by the suffix istano.[38]
Uzbeko Uzbekistano, Afgano Afganistano
The names derived from the name of a town or a river by the suffix io are in the first category.

4.3.5 Abbreviations

Abbreviations (mallongigoj) have nearly the same form as in other languages:
E.g.: ekz.ekzemlefor example, k.t.p.kaj tiel pluetc., p.pagopage, t.e.tio estasi.e., PIVPlena Ilustrita VortaroThe Full Illustrated Dictionary
Very often, the abbreviations are formed by conserving few letters from the beginning and possibly some from the end and by replacing the rest by a hyphen. Such abbreviation has grammatical ending and is normally declined.
d-rodoktorodoctor, s-rosinjoroMister, s-rinosinjorinomadam

[33] See PAG §309
[34] See chapter 4.1.1.
[35] See PAG §14B – I.
[36] Sequences of characters that very often repeat in Esperanto words, mostly suffixes in languages the words originate from. See chapter 4.2.5.
[37] Oficialaj Informoj de la Akademio de Esperanto, n-ro 9, 1989
[38] Pakistano belongs to the lexicon country, the inhabitant is called Pakistan|ano.